Resnick, also writing in 72, used “learner control as the defining criterion” of open education, saying that the primary aim was “to find ways of developing the full range of each individual’s capacities… while putting control of the learning process as much as possible in the hands of the learner.” Putting control in the hands of the learner requires helping them develop learning skills – teaching students how to learn. As she put it, “The more that individuals can organize bodies of knowledge, search texts or other presentations for useful information, and analyze new skills in order to “program” their own acquisition sequences, the more they will be able to learn independently of organized programs and skilled teachers.” Note that what is described here is information literacy.

Resnick, Lauren B. 1972. “Open Education: Some Tasks for Technology.” Educational Technology 12 (1):70.